Claviorganum Musik in der Salzburg Residenz
Konzert in der Kunstó und Wunderkammer des Dommuseums zu Salzburg


deutsche harmonia mundi 1c 065-99818


01 - Leonhard KLEBER (Tabulaturbuch 1524). Fantasy in fa   [2:21]
C · Flöte, Regal und Spinett

02 - Paul HOFHAIMER (1459-1537). Carmen magistri Pauli   [1:40]
B · Flöte
03 - Ludwig SENFL. Im Maien, im maien   [1:10]
C · Vokalquartett, Spinett und Laute
04 - Bernhard SCHMID d. Ä. Ein guter Dantz   [1:30]
B · Regal und Spinett

05 - Muenchener Lautentablulatur (um 1540). Ein guet Dantz 'Der Petler' - Der Hupfafuff   [1:08]

06 - Christian ERBACH (um 1570-1635). Canzona noni toni   [3:05]
B · Flöte

07 - Alessandro POGLIETTI († 1683). Capriccio 'vber dass Hennergeschrey'   [1:58]
B · Regal und Spinett

08 - Francis PILKINGTON (um 1562-1638). Rest sweet Nimphs   [2:13]
C · Tenor und Spinett

09 - William BYRD (1543-1623). Fantasia   [5:37]
C · Spinett


10 - Bernardo STORACE (17. Jh.). Balletto   [2:35]
A · Flöte und Spinett

11 - Thomas CRECQUILLON († 1557). Chanson   [2:02]
A · Sopran und Spinett
12 - Jacques Champion de CHAMBONNIÈRES († 1672). Sarabande 'Jeunes Zéphirs'   [3:38]
A · Double Spinett

13 - Alonso de MUDARRA (um 1508-1580). Gallarda   [1:20]
14 - Juan Bautista CABANILLES. Tiento de Battaglia   [5:10]
A · Regal und Spinett - Spinett - Flöte und Spinett - Tutti

Johannes von LUBLIN (Tabulatur um 1540)
15 - Conradus - Poznanie - Haÿduczkÿ - Ad novem saltus  [3:05]
D · Regal - Flöte - Flöte und Spinett - Regal und Spinett

16 - [2:46]
Clavierbuch der Regina Clara im Hopf (1629). Böhmnischer Tantz - Nachtanz
D · Flöte - Flöte und Spinett
Dobrensky Sammlumg, Prag (16. Jh). Písnička přikladná
Jacob PAIX (Tabulatur 1583). Ungaresca - Saltarello
D · Regal - Regal und Spinett



Gabriele Sima, Sopran
Margot Sturm, Alt
Reinhard Salamonsberger, Tenor
Werner Hahn, Baß

Heribert Metzger, Claviorganum (A)
Henrike Riedl, Claviorganum (B)
Wolfgang Walter, Claviorganum (C)
Gerhard Walterskirche, Claviorganum (D)

Wolfgang Guttman, Laute

CLAVIORGANUM in der Kunst— und Wunderkammer des Dommuseums zu Salzburg

© 1976 harmonia mundi
Aufnahmeort: Salzburg, Residenz
Aufnahme: Dr. Th. Gallia/P. Dery
Technik: Sonart
Übersertzung: D. D. Jones




There is no specific repertoire for claviorganum, and there is no local connection of any kind in this instrument's tradition. Among the "playable" literature from the fund of European keyboard music of the 16th and 17th centuries, our instrument shows a leaning towards intimate pieces with delicate lines: the typically linear ricercar or carízona, the playful ornamentation of the set of variations, or the rhythmic agitation of the dance suite is more suited to it than the heavy technique and passage-work of the toccata. Tablatures too form a legitimate part of the available music — keyboard instruments, after all, took part in all music written at that time, and equally, composers frequently intended one and the same piece both for solo and ensemble playing. The community between organ and ensemble music is further illustrated by the fact that the older organ music was sometimes published in part-form and had first to be set down, i. e. rewritten in a tablature suitable for the instrument. The succession of pieces in the tablature books shows clearly what was played: music for ecclesiastical and entertainment purposes alternates in a colourful mixture. "An instrumental part-book is not a virgins' book. So no-one should look for courtly discipline in it", as Christoph Lafelholtz explains in his 1585 manuscript tablature.

The "Fantasy by the Pforzheim organist Leonhard Kleber reveals itself to be independent of vocal models, but inspired by the nimbleness of the fingers and the technical possibilities of the instrument. Through its dedication to Cardinal Matthäus Lang in Salzburg, its place of composition is as clearly stated as in the three-part "Carmen" of the Salzburg-born composer Paul Hofhaimer. The Canzona by the Augsburg Fugger-organist Christian Erbach shows similarly sublime expression; in its fan-like structure, it strongly recalls the ensemble canzone of the period. In the lute tablatures. too, dance-forms predominate. On these models there developed an independant art which grew as the instrument and its technique were increasingly understood. How various were the forms it took in 16th century Poland is shown by the extensive book of tablatures of Johannes von Lublin, canon of the monastery at Krasnik, whith was put together between 1537 and 1547. The astonishing European expansion towards Poland must be seen in the context of the activities of Heinrich Fink, who was also briefly employed in Salzburg, as director of the court choir in Cracow. Strangely enough, in Hungary and Bohemia. corrresponding works have not remained extant in their land of
origin. What has come down to us, however, is the fashion at the princely courts of Europe of dancing "in the Hungarian style" or of putting together "Balli" from Hungarian themes. The basic model is embodied in the "Ungarescha" from the tablature book of Jacob Paix, 1583.

While music for the virginals is representative of this particular art-form in Elizabethan England — in his "Fantasia", William Byrd is concerned with constantly changing forms of playing — in the France of the 17th century, Chambonnières' dances for clavecin conjure up a bouquet of exquisite sound-pictures. And the musical exchange between Austria and Spain can also be described as "blossoming" in the time of Ferdinand I and of his son, Maximilian II. Cabanilles' warlike Tiento shows strong programmatic tendencies, as does Foglietti's musical poultry-yard scene. That both conjure up plastic images, with greater meaning than purely illustrative music, speaks for their quality. Finally, Storace's "Balletto" is an amiable example of the southern Italian school, standing midway between the old style of Frescobaldi and the new style of Pasquini.

The art of solo singing, which had blossomed remarkably in the middle ages in the songs of the troubadours, trouvères and minnesingers, was now taken up once more — with instrumental accompaniment. While the chanson of Charles V's Franco-Flemish musical director in Brussels, Thomas Crecquillon, is loaded with melancholy, Pilkington, the Englishman, is wishing all girls sweet dreams. In the song-settings of the Swiss-born Senfl, and in those of Czech origin, the existence of a text in each voice-part points to a completely vocal performance.

The determining factor in fixing the programme was the repertoire of the 1975 concerts in the "Kunst- und Wunderkammer" (Chamber of Arts and Marvels) in the Salzburg Cathedral Museum, under the title "European Keyboard Music". The variety of the As a solo, ensemble and accompanying instrument could thus be demonstrated by using all the available resources — all performers being members of the Institute of Musicology at Salzburg University.

Gerhard Walterskirchen



The instrument is a combination of flue-work (4' gedackt flute), regal and spinet. All three can be played on a single manual, both individually and in all conceivable combinations, up to and including the "tutti", flues + regal + spinet, i. e.: Flute, regal, spinet (all individually), and flute + regal, flute + spinet, regal + spinet, flute + regal + spinet. Further combination variants are made possible by slider coupling of the flute and regal (at d'/d sharp').

The spinet, an 8' instrument, has a compass of C/E to f''' over fifty keys. The fluework comprises a gedackt 4' flute in maplewood, with a compass of C/E to f'''. The 8' regal comprises 42 notes, C/E to a".

While the spinet could be reconstructed on the basis of the remaining integral parts of the original (bridges, soundpost, cover), late 16th century models typical of the period were used in the reconstruction of the lost original regaL Of the original complement of 50 flue-pipes, only seven were missing, and three proved to be later additions. Traces of an older bellows arrangement led to the conclusion that there must have been a pair of multi-folding wedge-shaped bellows (with an accumulator channel with check valves) inside the body of the instrument. The wind supply was correspondingly reconstructed with two wedge bellows (with five folds) to the right inside the body. The bellows are raised by two cords which are led through the right-hand wall of the case. The organ mechanism can be disengaged by pulling the keyboard forward; the spinet jacks can be raised together by means of a stop which passes through the kit-hand side of the case, thereby disengaging the spinet. Stops for the slider coupling of regal and flues can be found to right and left on the underside of the sliding keyboard.

The signature is found on the inside of the end-board: JOS. POCK ORGLMACHER ZU INSPRUG (Jos. Pock Organ-builder, Innsbruck), and the city arms of Innsbruck on the front. The spinet cover bears the inscription SIC TRANSIT GLORIA MUNDI MDLXXXXI. A further inscription — running round the inside of the rim — reads: LAVDATE DOMINUM IN CYMBALS BENE SONANTIBVS LAVDATE EVM IN CYMBALIS IVBILATIONIS OMNIS SPIRITVS LAVDET DOMINUM (Psalm 150).

The body, in alder wood, is richly furnished with mounted pilasters and arcatures, and the panels are decorated with scrolls and strongly stylized acanthus motifs. On the narrow sides there are two carrying handles in wrought-iron. The lid (which is not original) is executed as a frame with two panels, lined with silk. The whole cast is stained black, with gold inscriptions. The keyboard projects over a lower section which like the back wall of the body, can be opened by means of a hinged lid. The lower keys of the keyboard itself are in oxbone, the upper ones in veneered ebony. Dimensions:

Total width,   138 cm
Body depth, 45 cm
Total depth, 55 cm
Height of body, 32.5 cm
Keyboard width, 72 cm
Gauge, 50.4 cm (width of 21 lower keys)

The 4' flute pipes are arranged — in modular form  — lying inside the body; the wind feeds are set into the floor of the instrument. Right at the top of the body lies the (new) sounding-board for the spinet. The short, open brass resonators of the regal stand upright in a row beneath the keyboard.



During the opening of the Salzburg Dom-Museum, a musical instrument came to light which, having been among the possessions of the age-old Abbey of St. Peter, had more or less vanished from contemporary consciousness during almost two hundred years. Noted down already in the middle of the 18th century as 'damaged' in the archiepiscopal 'Chamber of Arts and Marvels', it had survived being hidden away during the 19th and 20th centuries right up to the present day, practically unnoticed and untouched. After its rediscovery in 1972, it soon became clear that it was a most unusual instrument, a claviorganum, and indeed a quite exceptional example of this hybrid variety (by 'claviorganum' we understand the combination of an organ and stringed keyboard instrument, with a manual in common, cp. 'Description of the instrument').

From the signature on the instrument, there is no doubt about its builder, origin or age.

The builder, Josua Pock, presumably a son of Erasmus Pock (Bock), a singer in the Imperial Chapel who came to Innsbruck in 1565 and there entered the service of the Archduke Ferdinand II of Tirol, must have been born around 1550 (—1560). The family name appears in contemporary sources in a variety of spellings (Pock, Bockh, Peck, Beck and so on). But the signature of the instrument ("Jos. Pock") and the forname "Josua" — the family name is here given as "Bockh" — entered in the parish register of births of Salzburg cathedral (on the occasion of the christening of a son in 1593), taken together, speak for the name "Josua Pcok". Between 1578 and 1582, Josua Pock worked in Innsbruck as journeyman to the organ-builder (and organist) Servatius Rorif. After a disagreement with him, Pock finally set up independently. On 29th July 1585 Archduke Ferdinand granted him a charter: Josue Pock was permitted to settle in Innsbruck with his wife and child, in order to carry on his craft and skills in organ-building and instrument-making, as also the craft of carpenter and cabinetmaker. In the years that followed, Josua Pock repaired a number of organs in the Tirol (Schwaz, parish church; Innsbruck, parish church) and built new ones (Hall I. T., convent of Our Lady). But even before he settled in Innsbruck, Josua Peck had reconstructed an instrument for the Archduke Ferdinand which is described as a two-manual harpsichord with regal — i. e. a claviorganum — and he himself had made a writing-table with built-in organ for the Archduke in 1584. After this, it delighted the master organ builder and instrument-maker, carpenter and cabinet-maker again and again to produce a constructive combination of a stringed keyboard instrument and organ, or of a keyboard instrument and a piece of furniture.

Our present instrument may be said to represent a masterpiece (cf. Description of the instrument). How this instrument, built in Innsbruck, completed there in 1591 and — as the motto inlaid before the date, SIC TRANSIT GLORIA MUNDL makes clear — originally intended for Archduke Ferdinand, actually came to be in Salzburg can be settled with some certainty from contemporary sources. Tensions arose between Pock and Archduke Ferdinand after its compktion in the Willed 1591/2, at which Pock — in the wake of an exodus of musicians from Innsbruck — moved to Salzburg. Perhaps our present instrument smoothed his way. For Archsbishop Wolf Dietrich very probably acquired the claviorganum straight after Pock's arrival in Salzburg, and had it placed in his private rooms. No doubt he was attracted in equal measures by the refinement of the "instrument's" construction, the artistic quality of the decoration of this "piece of furniture" and the variety of musical possibilities. Its existence in the archiepiscopal residence can be demonstrated by means of the 17th century inventories, for example, it appears in 1619 as "ein schwarz Cässtl von Eben Holz
Holz darin ain orglwerch" (A black box of ebony wood, an organ inside it) under the rubric 'Writing-table (!) and Organ". A hundred years later the curious instrument was to be found in the "Chamber of Arts and Marvels" of the Salzburg Archbishops in the "Great Gallery against S. Petrer's" (above the southern arches of the cathedral). After its expert and carefully executed restoration in 1973 by the academic restorer Peter Kukelka, the instrument returned to this same place. Since then it has unfolded its surprising, almost wondrous possibilities when — during visits, or in the concerts which has been specially organised since the summer of 1974 —  a players's hand have released first, say, the sounds of the spinet, and then suddenly the soft voice of the flute or the metallic regal, each voice on its own, one after the other, in varying combinations and divisions of the manual and then finally all the voices together in a harmonic mixture never before heard.