The Black Dragon
Music from the time of Vlad Dracula (ca. 1431-76)


Cançonièr CNCD 02

February - May 2010
Muscletone Studios

1 - Von ainem wutrich der hies Trakle waida von der Walachei (poem by Michel Beheim,
contrafact by Tim Rayborn from Wol auf, wir wellen salfen by Oswald von WOLKENSTEIN   [4:04]

2 - Oswald von WOLKENSTEIN: Wol auf, wir wellen salfen   [3:36]

3 - Conrad PAUMANN: Mit ganzem Willen   [3:32]

4 - Volék sirolm tudotlon (13th century Hungarian lament,
contrafact from Planctus ante nescia by Godefroy de SAINT-VICTOR   [3:13]

5 - Azt gondoltam, eső esik (Hungarian / Transylvanian folk song after Ensemble Muzsikás)   [3:43]

6 - Instrumental on 'Azt gondoltam...' (arranged by Tim Rayborn and Annette Bauer)   [2:17]

7 - Dragaicuta (traditional Transylvanian)   [2:24]

8 - Estéli imádság. ‘A fényes nap immár lenyugodott...’ (late medieval Moldavian lament)   [3:02]

09 - Ugrčinska Ruchenitsa [Râčenica] (traditional Bulgarian dance)   [3:15]

10 - La danse du cleves (15th century French dance)   [1:54]

11 - Guillaume DUFAY: Lamentio Sanctae Matris Ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae   [3:43]

12 - Amoroso (15th century Italian dance)   [4:17]

13 - Ioannis KOUKOUZELIS: Voulgarikon (Byzantine kratima, late 14th century)   [6:12]

14 - Kyrie echechraxa (Byzantine sticheron chant for Vespers)   [3:30]

15 - Taksim, makam uşşak (Ottoman Turkish)   [5:48]

16 - Salvator noster (15th century Hungarian polyphony, Ms. A. 107, H-Bu, arranged by Cançonièr)   [3:22]

17 - Von ainem wutrich der hies Trakle waida von der Walachei (poem by Michel Beheim,
contrafact by Tim Rayborn from Wol auf, wir wellen salfen by Oswald von WOLKENSTEIN   [3:53]


Annette Bauer • soprano recorder (#9), F-alto recorder (#1-3, 6, 17), G-alto recorder (#12), tenor recorder (#5, 13, 16), bells (#8, 13), voice (#11, 14), lute (#10), percussion (#15)
Phoebe Jevtovic • voice (#2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 14, 16)
Shira Kammen • vielle (#2, 7, 9-13, 16, 17), harp (#3-5), voice (#14, 16)
Tim Rayborn • voice (#1, 11, 14, 17), psaltery (#13, 16), citole (#3), lauta (#5, 6), 'ud (#15), tromba marina (#12), symphonie (#1, 17), percussion (#1, 2, 7, 9, 11, 17)



The fifteenth century was a time of remarkable change in music, as musical conventions and practices evolved from medieval to early Renaissance styles. It also was a time of major transitions in art, religion, politics, and technology. During this century, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, the printing press was invented, the Tudors took the crown of England, the Moors were expelled from southern Spain, Christopher Columbus sailed, Leonardo da Vinci was born and began to work, the Renaissance in Italy bloomed in full, and for a few years, a man who would become infamous ruled a small country called Wallachia in what is now southern Romania.

He was called Vlad Dracula (c. 1431 – 1476). His father, Vlad II, adopted the name Dracul ("Dragon") when he joined the Order of the Dragon, a chivalric order dedicated to crusading against the Turks in the Balkans. His son took the name Dracula, or “Son of the Dragon.” Dracula was, of course, partially the inspiration for Bram Stoker’s iconic anti-hero, though he was no vampire, but rather sought to repel the Ottomans by any means necessary, including brutal forms of torture and execution.

This album explores the rich musical cultures of Vlad's time, from both Eastern and Western Europe. Featuring Michel Beheim’s German poem about Vlad’s deeds, Italian dances and German songs, music of the Byzantine court, Balkan folk songs, Turkish classical music, the Lamentation for the Fall of Constantinople by Guillaume Dufay, and more!



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