Salve Antverpia / La Caccia & Capilla Flamenca
Musiques jouées, chantées et imprimées à Anvers au cours du 16° s.




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Ricercar 206 902
1999






Pierre PHALESE
1. Passamezzo d'Anvers  [1:25]
alta capella

Jacobus CLEMENS non PAPA
2. Forbons  [2:17]
alta capella

3.  [5:38]
Tielman SUSATO
Pavane Si par souffrir
flûtes à bec
Pierre PHALESE
Gaillarde Si pour t' aymer
Gaillarde l'Esmerillonne
Gaillarde Puis que vivre
bassa capella
Ballo Milanese
flûtes à bec

Jacobus CLEMENS non PAPA
4. Justempus  [1:36]
alta capella

Benedictus APPENZELLER
5. Se dire de l'osoie  [1:50]
4 voix ATTB
6. Le printemps faict florir  [2:23]
flüte à bec / luth
7. Viens tost  [2:20]
4 voix ATTB

Pierre de MANCHICOURT
8. Pourquoy m'est tu tant ennemie  [2:08]
flûtes à bec

Benedictus APPENZELLER
9. Gentils galants  [1:14]
4 voix ATTB

Pierre PHALESE
10.   [7:47]
Branle simple 1
alta capella
Branle Communs 5
flûtes à bec
Branle Communs 7
Hoboken dans
alta capella
Branle Gay 3 & 6
flûtes à bec
Branle simple 1
Branle Mon amy
Branle simple 1
alta capella

Emanuel ADRIAENSSEN
11. Fantasia prima  [4:24]
luth

Pierre PHALESE
12.  [2:52]
Allemande & Saltarello «Bruynsmedelyn»
Allemande & Saltarello «Poussinghe»
flûtes à bec

Lupus HELLINC
13. Nieuwe Almanack  [1:27]
alta capella

Tielman SUSATO
14.  [7:34]
Pavane «Mille Regretz»
flûtes à bec
Pavane «Mille ducats»
Gaillarde II, III
cromornes
Gaillarde I
alta capella


Pierre PHALESE
15. Schiarazula Marazula  [1:24]
alta capella

Orlando di LASSO
16. Matonna mia cara  [2:08]
4 voix ATTB

Emanuel ADRIAENSSEN
17. Allemande Nonette  [1:40]
luth

Andreas PEVERNAGE
18. Ardo, Donna, per voi  [2:52]
4 voix ATTB

Tielman SUSATO
19.  [6:31]
Danse du Roy · Bergerette
alta capella
Le joly Bois
flûtes à bec (4')
Bergerette «Les grands douleurs»
alta capella
20. Salve quae roseo  [8:41]
5 voix ATTTB
21. La Morisque  [1:03]
alta capella

Pierre PHALESE
22. Passamezzo d'Anvers  [1:31]
alta capella



Alta capella: groupement d'instruments à vent de plein air :
chalemie, bombarde(s), trombone(s), basson

Bassa capella: groupement d'instruments pour la musique d'intérieur :
ici, flûte à bec, luth et basson




LA CACCIA

Gunter CARLIER, trombone
Patrick DENECKER, flûte à bec, cromome, bombarde
Mirella RUIGROK, flûte a bec, cromome, basson
Elisabeth SCHOLLAERT, chalemie
Karl-Ernst SCHRÖDER, luth
Bernhard STILZ, flûte à bec, cromorne
Peter VAN HEYGHEN, flûte à bec, cromorne
Simen VAN MECHELEN, trombone
&
membres de la CAPILLA FLAMENCA:
Marnix DE CAT, altus
Jan CAALS, tenor
Stephane VAN DYCK, tenor
Lieven TERMONT, tenor
Dirk SNELLINGS, bassus

sous la direction de
Patrick DENECKER



Edition MUSIDISC Distribution
Enregistrement : Eglise St-Apollinaire à Bolland , Octobre 1998
Prise de son et direction artistique: Jérôme LEJEUNE

Deze opname werd gerealiseerd dankzij de welwillende steun van de verzekeringsgroep APRA
Cet enregistrement a été réalisé grâce au soutien du groupe d'assurances APRA







The Antwerp town players and singers.
Music played, sung and printed in Antwerp during the 16th century.


The 16th century was known as Antwerp's Golden Age thanks to a simultaneous development of business, industry, art and science. The harbour town became the most important warehouse of Western Europe; great numbers of foreign traders and bankers made it their base, as did representatives of all types of trade. The town's material wellbeing created a great flowering of culture that was then encouraged by the town's rulers and which in its turn attracted scholars and artists of all types to reside in the city.

It is thus not surprising that secular instrumental music, the music that was played by the town players and singers, also underwent such an efflorescence.

The players and singers of Antwerp had come together as members of the Guild of Saint Job by the beginning of the 16th century and maintained their own chapel in the church of Saint Jacob. The instrumentalists tried to protect their professional interests by means of all kinds of rules and precepts, for instance those dealing with musical ensembles and the teaching of music. As the 16th century progressed, an innumerable quantity of players streamed into wealthy Antwerp because the city offered so many opportunities for employment. At every hour of the day there were weddings, festivities and dances; the sounds of instruments being played and of voices raised in song were everywhere, these also being mixed with the happy bustling of the crowd, as the Italian author Ludovico Guicciardini described in 1567. Above all, the Antwerp Guild of St. Job offered the necessary corporate guarantees for all who made their living from music. A small privileged group of players was that of the town players, who gained status from playing music for the town councillors wherever they went. They also were required to play the retreat or levee in front of the town hall each evening and this turn was soon called “het lauweyt van de stadspijpers”; the pejorative meaning that came to be linked to the word lawaai can clearly be blamed on the loud and out-of-tune playing of the town pipers! They also performed in churches and in the town hall as well as at all possible moments elsewhere, such as at visits from foreign dignitaries, taking up of official positions as the swearing of oaths, military successes of the reigning princely house, announcements of peace, processions, annual fairs and all such occasions. In the 16th century the Antwerp corps of town pipers consisted of five men; amongst the instruments that they played were the shawm, the crumhom and the trombone, to which they would add softer instruments such as the recorder and the violin for indoor performances such as providing music for banquets in the town hall. Any instruments could be used at any given moment, but the most usual combination for performances outside was that of three reed instruments and one trombone. We may well wonder what the town musicians actually played, for in the sources that have survived we read mainly of mottekens and liedekens. The answer is actually very simple; the players performed anything and everything that came to hand and that was suitable for the occasion. This may be seen from the title-pages of the published books of songs for several voices of the time, wherein we may often read “seer lustich om singen ende spelen op diversche instrumenten” or “accomodées aussi bien à la voix comme à tous instruments musicaux”. It is clear that the vocal repertoire of the time was used not only in settings for groups of instruments and voices together but also by purely instrumental groups. We may further assume that the players gave first preference to the immediately available publications from their own local music presses.

The “vermaerde koopmansstadt Antwerpen” reached the summit of its economic and cultural growth around 1540. By this time it had grown into one of the most important Western European centres for the printing of music, one where the most famed composers had their works printed. Jehan Buys and Henry Loys were the first to publish polyphonic music in the Low Countries with their 1542 edition of Des chansons à quattre parties, composez par M. Benedictus. Their publishing house “In het Schaakspel” was to be found in the Kammenstraat, where most of the printers and booksellers of Antwerp had their offices. The composer Benedictus Appenzeller, whose three songs Viens tost, Se dire je l'osoie and Gentils galans are performed on this recording, was choir master to the Court Chapel of Maria of Hungary, who was the regent of the Low Countries at that time. Tielman Susato of Cologne, who began his career as a music copyist in Antwerp, was virtually the first music publisher of the Low Countries to adopt the new technique of movable type. He had possibly drawn his inspiration from a collection entitled Selectissimae Cantiones dated 1540, in which he had been able to include his own first composition and which had been published in Augsburg by Melchior Kriesstein. Susato was to publish more than twenty collections of songs in total, the first ten appearing in the space of just two years. His collection Le Second Livre des Chansons à quattre parties (1544) includes the song Pourquoy mest tu tant ennemie by Pierre de Manchicourt, the singing master of the church of St. Martin in Tours at that time.

Susato launched his series of volumes of motets in 1546 with the Liber Primus sacrarum cantionum quinque vocum; he included his own great motet of praise to Antwerp Salve quae roseo in the volume and this recording fittingly concludes with it. With the intention of “de hemelsche konst der musycken in onser nederlantscher moedertalen oock in 't licht te brengen”, he published Het ierste musykboexcken and Het tweetste musyckboexken in 1551. They contain for the most part anonymous four-part songs with Flemish texts, such as the song Lupus Hellinck's Nieuwe almanack, both of which are recorded here. Hellinck was a singing master from Bruges who composed this occasional piece for the festival of the Boy Bishop on Holy Innocent's Day, writing probably for his own choir of the Sint-Donaaskerk. Susato had been named town piper of Antwerp in 1531 and his shop on the Stadtswaag was fittingly called “In den kromhoorn”. His book of dances, Het derde musyckboexken (1551) was regarded as being representative of the secular repertoire of the Antwerp town musicians. These musicians were always being asked by townspeople to perform above and beyond their civic duties at countless weddings, banquets, dances and suchlike occasions, all of these being moments for which the dance music that was published in Antwerp was superbly fitting. Susato's third music book contains dances for instruments in four-part arrangements, such as those for the Basse dansen, the Pavanes and the Gaillardes. The popular La Mourisque was danced by blacked-up boys with bells attached to their arms and legs.

As well as the many printed collections there is also a great quantity of music that has survived in manuscript form; such collections clearly reflect the taste of the collector, as can be seen in the Lerma Codex. This extensive collection contains pieces by 16th century Low Country, Italian and Spanish composers and was assembled at the beginning of the 17th century by command of the Duke of Lerma, the minister of King Philip III of Spain. From this collection we have included instrumental versions of two compositions, Justempus and Forbons, by Jacob Clemens non Papa, the choirmaster of the Sint-Donaaskerk in Bruges.

Petrus Phalesius the Younger moved from Leuven to Antwerp in 1581 and took up residence in De Rode Leeuw in the Kammenstraat. Together with printer Jan Bellerus he commenced a series of editions with the intention of popularising the Italian polyphonic style in the Low Countries. They published the Libro de villanelle, moresche et altri canzoni together with youthful works by Lassus in 1582, the first printing of which appeared a year later in Paris under the imprint of Le Roy & Ballard. From this collection of villanelles we have selected the popular four-part Matonna mia cara; this is better known as “The Landsknecht's Serenade” and consists of a German soldier serenading his beloved in broken Italian. Phalesius' firm created a number of successful anthologies, including his Armonia celeste (1593) from which we have selected the madrigal Ardo donna per voi by Andries Pevernage; the composer had been made singing master of the Antwerp cathedral in 1585 and had assembled the above anthology himself at Phalesius' request. Phalesius nevertheless remained interested in instrumental music and the Antwerp book of dances Liber chorearum molliorum, otherwise known as the Recueil de danseries, rolled off his presses in 1583. From this collection we have chosen a number of Galliardes, Allemandes and Bransles, together with a Ballo milanese and a Hobokendans, whose titles indicate the use of local melodic material. We have also selected the original Schiarazula Marazula, whose mangled title possibly relates to the Commedia dell' Arte. This recording contains many times the Passomezzo d'Anvers, into which an immediately recognisable tune has been worked and with which the Antwerp town players would identify themselves in processions in other towns.

With the publication of Emanuel Adriaenssen's Pratum musicum in 1584, Phalesius the Younger continued a tradition of his father; Petrus Phalesius the Elder has published a series of lute-books in Leuven between the years 1545-1575. The Antwerp lute collection contains mostly songs and dance tablatures, but in the guise of an introduction also includes five fantasias in free fugato style — clearly compositions by Adriaensen himself. From this collection we have chosen the Fantasia prima and the splendid Almande Nonette, in which the title and melody vent the complaint of a fair and life-loving girl who must enter a convent against her will.

Godelieve Spiessens
Translation: Peter Lockwood





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